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Egas Moniz
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    (November 29, 1874-December 13, 1955)
    Born in Avanca, Portugal
    Birth name was Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
    Co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in Medicine for developing the pre-frontal lobotomy (1949)
    Member of the Portuguese Parliament (1903-17)
    Minister of Foreign Affairs (1917-18)
    His report on the positive effects of lobotomy was based entirely on his subjective impressions of whether the patients had improved.
    In some countries, particularly the US, pre-frontal lobotomies were performed rather indiscriminately.
    Many patients were reduced to a near-vegetative state.
    For other patients, the operation resulted in little or no improvement.
    A campaign was launched to strip him of his Nobel Prize.
    He developed cerebral angiography, a technique for mapping the blood vessels of the brain which is widely used for the detection of brain tumors and vascular diseases.
    One could argue he earned the Nobel Prize, but was just given it for the wrong discovery.
    He recommended lobotomy only for the most intractable cases.
    He was shot by a psychopathic patient (1939).
    Opponents of lobotomy and fans of ironic deaths sometimes erroneously report that he was killed by this patient.

Credit: C. Fishel

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