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Cesare Lombroso
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Crime Fighter
    (November 6, 1835-October 19, 1909)
    Born in Verona, Italy
    Physician and criminologist
    Professor of forensic medicine, psychiatry and criminal anthropolgy at the University of Turin
    Wrote 'Criminal Man' (1876)
    He claimed criminals were a biological throwback to early man or the apes.
    He claimed 'born criminals' could be identified by 'physical stigmata,' including a sloping forehead, ears of unusual size, a protruding jaw, an asymmetric face or excessively long arms.
    He appeared in court as an expert witness to argue in favor of convicting a defendant based on his appearance.
    Fellow criminologist Charles Goring described his ideas as 'an organized system of self-evident confusion whose parallel is only to be found in the astrology, alchemy, and other credulities of the Middle Ages.'
    He became an enthusiastic spiritualist after attending seances and being taken in by a medium's standard tricks, such as making the table levitate.
    Leo Tolstoy dissed him in the novel 'Resurrection.'
    Despite their dubiousness, his theories spurred an interest in the scientific study of criminals.
    Fortunately, he got to testify at only a handful of trials. (Not because the judges thought his ideas were wrong, but because they resented scientists intruding on their turf.)
    He was an advocate of penal reform, including introducing work programs for a more humane and constructive treatment of prisoners.
    At his own expense, he printed pamphlets on how to prevent pellagra and distributed them to Italian peasants.

Credit: C. Fishel

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