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Alexis Carrel
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    (June 28, 1873-November 5, 1944)
    Born in Sainte-Foy-Les-Lyon, France
    Won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for pioneering new techniques in vascular sutures (1912)
    With aviator Charles Lindbergh, invented the perfusion pump, which allowed organs to live outside the body during surgery
    Wrote 'Man, the Unknown' (1936)
    He did some odd experiments such as transferring one dog's head to another dog's body.
    He wrote, 'Women who have no children are not well balanced and become more nervous than the others.'
    He wrote, 'We must not forget that the most highly civilized races are white. In France, the populations of the north are far superior to those of the Mediterranean shores.'
    He suggested that 'deviant' human types should be dealt with via 'a euthenasia establishment, equipped with a suitable gas.'
    For the German edition of 'Man, the Unknown,' he wrote a preface praising the Nazi government's 'energetic measures against the propagation of the defective, the mentally diseased, and the criminal.'
    After he testified about witnessing a miraculous cure at Lourdes of a girl suffering from tubercular peritonitis (1902), he was unable to get an appointment to any French hospital because of anticlericalism in the medical establishment.
    During World War I, he and chemist Henry Dakin developed a technique for treating gas gangrene in deep wounds.
    The pump he and Lindbergh invented was a popular exhibit at the New York World's Fair (1939).
    His advances in vascular surgery made coronary bypass operations and organ transplants possible.

Credit: C. Fishel

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