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Stand Watie
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Military Personnel
    (December 12, 1806-September 9, 1871)
    Born in Calhoun, Georgia
    Also known as Degataga (Cherokee for 'Standing Firm')
    Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation (1862-66)
    Brigadier general in the Confederate Army
    Commanded the 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles
    He was one of the signers of the controversial New Echota Treaty, under which the Cherokee gave up their lands in Georgia and relocated to Oklahoma.
    During the post-Treaty violence, he killed James Foreman (1842).
    He owned slaves.
    During a raid on Wagoner, Oklahoma, his soldiers 'killed all the Negroes they could find,' including wounded men (September 9, 1864).
    After the signing of the New Echota Treaty, his brother and uncle were murdered, and he survived an assassination attempt.
    He was acquitted of murdering Robinson, successfully claiming self-defense.
    Despite being poorly equipped, his troops tied down thousands of Union soldiers with raids in the northern Indian Territory, Kansas and Missouri.
    He was the last Confederate general to surrender (June 23, 1865).

Credit: C. Fishel

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