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    (1822-December 10, 1909)
    Born in North Platte, Nebraska
    Birth name in Lakota language was Makhpiya Luta
    Leader of the Oglala Lakota Sioux Native Americans who in 1865 believed the U.S. was breaking treaty by building forts too far up the Bozeman Trail (in Wyoming and Montana)
    Waged war against the U.S. Army in a battle known as Red Cloud's War (1866-68)
    Died in the Pine Ridge (Oglala Oyanke in Lakota) Reservation at age 87
    As a youth he killed one of his uncle's rivals, a fellow Oglala, which divided the tribe.
    In the Wagon Box Fight in Wyoming (August 2, 1867) he had over 1,000 tribesmen battle against 31 soldiers and was soundly defeated.
    He lured Lt. Col. William J. Fetterman into a battle by having his braves stand on their horses and shake their bare asses at the men.
    Many of his tribesmen and other tribe members practiced a religious ceremony called the Ghost Dance, but he believed the movement drew soldiers' attention and wouldn't participate.
    The Red Cloud Agency was a reservation that bore his name but moved three times between 1871-78 before settling in South Dakota and renamed the Pine Ridge Reservation.
    He was a great warrior at an early age and led many successful attacks in territorial wars against the Crows, Pawnees, Utes and Shoshones.
    On December 21, 1866, his convincing defeat of Fetterman and his troops, known as the Battle of the Hundred Slain or the Fetterman Massacre, predated Little Big Horn by 10 years and earned him respect from tribes and troops alike.
    He said of treaties, 'I have listened patiently to the promises of the Great Father, but his memory is short. I am now done with him. This is all I have to say.'
    He opposed the Dawes Act, and rightfully so, as it eventually meant 90 million acres of land were lost to Natives and 90,000 Natives were displaced.
    While on the reservation the remaining years of his life, he was a constant intermediary between whites and Natives concerning right and fair treatment of natives.

Credit: Scar Tactics

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