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Jules Mazarin
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Religious Figure
    (July 14, 1602-March 9, 1661)
    Born in Pescina, Italy
    Birth name was Giulio Mazarino
    Named a cardinal of the Roman Catholic church (1641)
    Succeeded Cardinal Richelieu as chief minister of France
    His elevation to cardinal had more to do with his political qualifications than religious ones.
    He was a high-stakes gambler.
    His manner with Anne of Austria, the French regent, was so intimate that there were rumors that the two had secretly married.
    His policies, especially regarding taxes, were so unpopular that a revolt broke out, forcing him, Anne and a young Louis XIV to flee Paris (1648-53).
    He acted less imperiously than Richelieu had.
    He was a skilled diplomat.
    He expanded French territory, gaining Alsace in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and parts of Flanders and Catalonia with the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659).
    His personal library became the Bibliotheque Mazarine, France's oldest public library.

Credit: C. Fishel

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