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Herbert Kitchener
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Military Personnel
    (June 24, 1850-June 5, 1916)
    Born in Ballylongford, Ireland
    Birth name was Horatio Herbert Kitchener
    First Earl Kitchener
    Field marshal
    British commander in the Sudan (1884-99), South Africa (1900-02) and India (1902-09)
    Secretary of State for War (1914-16)
    Drowned when the HMS Hampshire struck a mine and sank
    He was reprimanded by his superiors for violating British neutrality by volunteering for the French in the Franco-Prussian War (1871).
    During the Boer War (1900-02), he instituted a scorched earth policy in which farms were torched and civilians were rounded up into concentration camps.
    The camps lacked adequate food, sanitation and medical care, leading to a 34% death rate.
    The government lost confidence in his leadership after the disastrous Battle of Gallipoli (1915-16).
    His death inspired several conspiracy theories ranging from his death being faked (since the body was never recovered) to an assassination by the British government.
    As governor-general of the Sudan, he guaranteed freedom of religion, distributed land to the farmers and reformed the debt laws.
    Against prevailing opinion, he correctly predicted World War I would last at least three years and require mobilizing a massive new army to defeat Germany.
    He initially opposed the Gallipoli campaign, but gave in to pressure from Winston Churchill.
    The recruiting poster featuring him was so effective that James Montgomery Flagg copied it for America, with Uncle Sam replacing Lord Kitchener.

Credit: C. Fishel

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